The Department of Meteorology and Hydrology operated a manual controlled daily river forecasting and flood warning system to reduce flood danger as well as to make the precaution of flood since January 1, 1966. The Department started a mini computer based river forecasting and flood warning system during the year 1978 and upgraded to present system during 1987 with UNDP/WMO project. Hydrological Division of DMH is responsible for issuing daily river forecast and flood forecast along 11 major rivers: Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, Sittaung, Thanlwin, Dokehtawady, Bago Shwegyin, Ngawun, Toe, Kalaten and Lay Myo. Whenever warnings are issued from River Forecasting Section (RFS) of D.M.H, the message is sent to the respective stations by telephone or Single Side Band (SSB) transceiver. As soon as head of the station receive the message of warning, he immediately inform the local authorities and other related departments in order to carry out the necessary action. At the same time the warnings are disseminated through the radio and television as well as through the Newspaper for general public.
RFS of D.M.H is using both simple and advanced techniques for issuing flood warning and bulletin to the users and public, and is also applying empirical models based on single and multiple regression analysis for forecasting peak flood level along Ayeyarwady and Chindwin rivers. The lead time for issuing flood warning is about one to two days for short range forecast and about seven to ten days for long range forecast, especially for deltaic area of Ayeyarwady.
In order to provide runoff data, discharge and sediment discharge measurements are carried out every year at three sites in the selected three rivers by Hydrological Division, Upper Myanmar Division and Lower Myanmar Division.
Acid Deposition Monitoring
Laboratory under Hydrological Division has started river water quality monitoring since 1999 by the use of portable photometer at some chosen sites. Regarding acid deposition monitoring, DMH has initiated rain water collection and has been measuring its pH and EC since the year 2003 .Myanmar becomes member country of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in Asia ) in 2005 and DMH is designated as National Center for EANET. During EANET mission in March 2006, Yangon (Kaba Aye – location of DMH) was approved as urban site for wet deposition monitoring. Systematic sampling of rain water is able to carry out after the installation of Wet Sampler in June 2007, which was provided by ADORC (Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center), Network Center of EANET. The measurement of pH and EC of the collected rain water samples are performed by ADORC donated – Horiba pH meter. During the first week of August 2009, Ion-chromatograph and Ultra pure water production system were installed at the laboratory of DMH with the support of Japan government through JICA. After the installation and Ultra pure water in August 2009, Laboratory of DMH has started to analyze the ion contents such as Cation NH4+, Na+, K+,Ca2+,Mg2+ and Anion SO42-, NO3-,Cl. So DMH is able to provide ion contents in rain water to the acid deposition monitoring network of East Asia. During the end of October 2010, the experts from Asia Center for Air Pollution Research – ACAP(former ADORC) has visited to the laboratory of DMH and they implemented the activities in accordance with the objectives of the mission: to exchange views and information on the institutional arrangement on the acid deposition monitoring of EANET in Myanmar; to discuss and exchange information on technical issues, especially QA/QC activities and data reporting, including check on condition of analytical instrument; to discuss the maintenance of sampling instruments, and Others.
GIS application in Hydrology
GIS application in meteorology and hydrology is initial stage at the present. The government has invested about 100 million Kyats for establishment of GIS application in DMH. During 2010, DMH has developed flood hazard analysis and flood simulation by using IFAS for upper parts of Chindwin river, Ayeyarwady river and Shwegyin river. Development of river catalogue for Chindwin river basin is now in processing. Moreover, DMH is also implementing the flood hazard map for Bago township at Bago river basin by technical assistance by ICHARM and financial support by JICA.
Myanmar National Committee for International Hydrological Programme
By the organization of DMH, Myanmar National Committee for International Hydrological Programme was formed in 2003 and the government assigned the Minister for Transport as Chairman, Deputy Minister for Transport as Vice Chairman and Director General of DMH as the Secretary of the National Committee. Chairmen of Yangon and Mandalay City Development Committees and Heads of Departments related to hydrology are members of the committee. Under the National Committee, five Working Groups are formed to implement research and task according to the guideline of International Hydrological Programme and also to participate and contribute in the meeting conducted by National Committee. Up to 2010, Myanmar National Committee for International Hydrological Programme had conducted five meetings including paper reading session.
Hydrological Observational Stations
- Hydrological Stations (22) Stations
- Meteorological and Hydrological Stations (48) Stations
- Water Level three times a day
- Evaporation once a day
- Water Temperature three times a day
- Water Velocity Selected Site at every year
- Discharge - ။ -
- Sediment Discharge - ။ -
- River Bed Profile - ။ -
- Daily water level forecast
- Dekad Forecast
- Monthly Forecast
- Seasonal water level forecast
- Flood Forecast for early, mid, late monsoon period
- Flood warning
- Minimum Alert Water Level
- Significant Water level Bulletin
- Flood Bulletin
- Minimum Water Level Bulletin
(26.8.2019): Monsoon is vigorous over the Andaman Sea and South Bay and moderate elsewhere over the Bay of Bengal.